Powerful plyometric fitness moves

Are you bored with your current workout? Have you hit the dreaded fitness plateau? Give your fitness a jumpstart with plyometrics, the training technique used by athletes to increase muscle power and strength with jumps, bounds and other explosive movements. Plyometrics, also called jump training, will not only add intrigue to your current exercise ennui, they will help you boost your fitness level, burn calories and get results. Here are three plyometric moves, courtesy of the American Council on Exercise (ACE) to get you pumped.

Before you jump

Because of the explosive movements, plyometrics are considered an advanced training technique for athletes and fitness enthusiasts who have a solid foundation of fitness.

Jessica Matthews, coordinator of continuing education for American Council on Exercise (ACE), says “Plyometric training can be a smart addition to a healthy individual’s training program as long as it is used wisely. This type of training, when used safely and effectively, strengthens muscles, increases vertical jump and decreases impact forces on the joints.”

Before you jump into plyometrics, be sure to read Get a jump on fitness with plyometrics and learn more about this powerful training technique.

Quick plyometric workout

Forward Cone Jumps

Starting position: Place a series of cones 18 to 24 inches apart in a straight line on a non-slip surface. Stand 6 inches behind the first cone with your feet hip-width apart or closer, arms by your sides. Pull your shoulders down and back without arching your low back, and brace your abdominal muscles to stiffen your spine.

Downward phase: First shift your hips backwards then slowly move downwards to create a hinge-like movement at your knees. Continue to lower yourself until you feel your heels about to lift off the floor. Try to maintain a flat back by bending forward at the hips. Keep your head facing forward or to the floor, and position your arms where comfortable or where they offer the most balance support.

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Jumping motion: With ONLY a very brief pause at the bottom of your downward phase, explode forward and upwards over the top of the first cone, pushing and extending your ankles, knees and hips simultaneously. As you jump into the air, try to keep your feet level with each other and parallel with the floor.

Landing: The most important components of the landing phase are correct foot position and avoiding excessive forward movement. Attempt to land softly and quietly on the mid-foot, rolling backwards quickly towards the heels to create a level foot, parallel with the floor. Always push your hips backwards and drop your hips to absorb the jumping forces. Avoid locking your knees or quads on your landing, as this may lead to potential knee injuries. Land with your trunk inclined slightly forward, head aligned with your spine and back rigid or flat. Keep your abdominal / core muscles engaged, stiffening your torso to protect your spine

With only a very brief pause at the bottom of your landing phase, explode forward and upwards again. Continue this process until you have cleared all the cones.

Next Page: Lateral Cone Jumps

Tennis Fitness and Footwork Technique for Kids. Tennis Blast Program. David Bailey’s Bailey Method for Kids

Powerful Physical Fitness Benefits You Should Know About

Many people dream of enjoying the benefits of physical fitness but that is as close as they’ll get. While this is unfortunate, it is their own choice and it doesn’t have to be yours. When you make the effort to be physically fit, all aspects of your life will improve. Your quality of life and chances for a longer life will both improve, as well. What is even just as important is you will have more freedom in your later years. Those who tend to ignore physical fitness become like the walking wounded in old age. You can enjoy the following benefits by choosing to become more physically fit.

The most obvious benefit you will gain from exercise is burning more calories. The more intense your work outs are, the more calories you will be able to burn. Once again, we all know that is a great way to lose and manage weight. But it is a constant struggle, it seems, for millions in some countries like the US. You can try easing into the swing of things if this describes you. Start with something simple like choosing to take the stairs instead of the elevator. Or to get more foot time, try parking a little farther away. After a heavy evening meal, the best thing you can do is go for a walk. Your food will also digest better, too.

We all know that life in modern society is full of stress, anxiety, frustrations, aggravations, anger, and so on. Probably the very best way to blow all that negative energy out of your system is through a hard work-out. If you’ve experienced this first hand, then you know. After your workout, you will feel better. After taking a hot shower, your day will have improved. Taking a brisk half hour walk will do the trick if you’re pressed for time.

The fact is that if you are exercising on a regular basis you will have fewer days of low energy. With regular exercise your average energy levels will increase and last longer. To keep your blood circulation and oxygen levels up you have to exercise. It is all good when it comes to exercise and energy. Actually, it is interesting to hear people talk about not having the energy to exercise. Higher energy levels are your for the taking you just have to get over the initial hump of low energy. Physical fitness has benefits that include every area of your life. You have to decide what you want to accomplish.

The author has written numerous informative and interesting articles. Check out some of his most current on Helpful Tips for Working With Large Mirrors In Your House and Stellar Ways to Save Money on Printer Cartridges. You may also like the information on home security

Powerful Cardio – 2 Drills That You Can Implement to Achieve Superior Cardiovascular Fitness!

I want to talk about 2 drills here that you can implement without the need for any real heavy duty equipment such as treadmills and elliptical trainers. In order to achieve real cardio you have to intensify the work you are doing. In other words, instead of just walking and only worrying about the resistance of your own body-weight try walking with a weighted backpack. Look to make your work more intense. Check out the following 2 drills that follows this same pattern.

1. Kettlebell Stair Walks: For this drill all you need is the availability of some stairs and a couple of kettlebells. You can use stairs in your home, at the park, or the bleachers at your local high school football field. Simply start at the base of the stairway or bleachers with a bell in each hand. Now your intensified work starts! Simply start climbing the stairs carrying the load of the 2 iron cannonballs with you.

You will quickly realize how the inclusion of the 2 bells just made your mediocre walk an intense productive one!

2 Kettlebell Swings Into a Run: For this drill you will only need the availability of an open flat space and a single kettlebell. To intensify a simple jog for this drill you will tax yourself first by executing a set of double-arm kettlebell swings. To begin, mark off a distance of about 100 yards. Set the bell at one end of this marked distance and perform a series of 50 swings with a moderately heavy kettlebell. Once you complete the swings then immediately drop the bell and jog the 100 yards down and back totaling a 200 yard jogging distance! By doing this pre-work before your jog you are drastically improving your endurance, cardiovascular fitness, and stamina. You will achieve Powerful Cardio!

To learn more about Kettlebells, Fitness, and achieving Total Mind-Blowing Strength come and visit me at http://www.efandps.com
To be one of my members and to receive more tips on INSANE BODY CONSTRUCTION please visit me at: http://www.efandps.com/www.efandps.com/Brandons_Members_Newsletter.html
I’m Brandon Richey the Strength and Conditioning Pro!

Super Busy Lifestyle? Super Powerful Laser Hair Removal Will Fit Into Any Diary !

Dr Ayham Al-Ayoubi at London Medical and Aesthetic Clinic goes back in time to review the entire history of humanity to see what methods people invented for hair removal to get rid of undesirable hair on body and face.

Long before most advanced technology of laser hair removal was developed people all around the world used more traditional methods such as sugaring, threading, waxing, hot waxing and shaving. Such hair removal takes up a lot of time, but the effects are short duration up to two weeks not to mention other disadvantages of skin left irritated, follicles are open after waxing with increased risk of skin infections, prickly regrowth, possible cuts and skin damage and more serious risk of pigmentation.

Some of us fighting with undesirable hair went further and used electrolysis. This method was very popular ten years ago and delivered considerable decrease of a quantity of hair after course but it is very painful and the course of procedures is prolonged.

Today London Medical and Aesthetic clinic, 1 Harley Street, London offers most advanced revolutionary Laser Hair Removal with our exclusive Cynosure’s Elite Laser hair removal Aesthetic Workstation. This advanced laser hair removal system is precise, safe and suitable for most skin types. Cynosure Elite laser hair removal that is painless and very high efficiency.

At London Medical and Aesthetic Clinic experienced medical team combines its expertise with the latest and the most advanced laser hair removal technology to give the most effective, painless, rapid and permanent laser hair removal treatment for both women and men. Cynosure laser hair removal was developed as a result long-term investigations and clinical tests and is the most effective procedure – performed under 1 Harley Street clinic conditions.

The principle of advanced Laser hair removal is the source of the narrowly directed beam of the laser light of the specific wavelength to the skin. The skin is transparent for the emission of laser light but pigment (the colour of hair) considerably absorbs energy of light, which leads to heating and destroying the hair follicle. Absorbed energy of laser light destroys hair follicle and slows down an increase in the hair, without damaging the skin.

Dr Ayham Al-Ayoubi recommends a course of laser hair removal treatments for maximum effect but most patients can achieve a permanent hair reduction from as little as 2-3 sessions of laser hair removal saving a lot of time for todays busy society .

For more information or to book a consultation with Dr Ayham Al-Ayoubi
At London Medical and Aesthetic Clinic, 1 Harley Street, London
Please call 0208 342 1100 or
Email us at info@Lmaclinic.com

London medical & aesthetic clinic is UK’s one of the leading clinics offers a wide range of treatment including Smartlipo and Laser Hair Removal.

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2 Powerful Dumbbell and Bodyweight Exercises For Ultimate Home Fitness

Dumbbell Snatch – This exercise will hit almost every single muscle in your body, but really does a great job of targeting the hips, thighs, and hamstrings. This movement also mimics the basic act of picking things up off the ground and placing them overhead.

Start off with a shoulder width stance. Keep your back straight and chest out. Grab a dumbbell and slightly squat down and hold the dumbbell between your legs. The non-working hand will be used for balance and control.
Explode upwards as you straighten out your legs and transfer energy from the hips to the toes. Shrug your shoulders and let the dumbbell travel towards the ceiling. Keep the dumbbell close to the body as you bend your elbows to let the dumbbell flow in a straight line towards the ceiling.
Once the dumbbell get up to your shoulders, flip your wrist, so that you arm is “under” the dumbbell. Dip down with your knees as you straighten out your arm. Straighten your legs out again and stand for a second with your arms straight above your head, dumbbell in your hand.
Control the dumbbell back to starting position.

Hindu Pushups – This exercise is another compound movement that targets the chest, shoulders, triceps, and stretches the lower back. This movement may not have much carry over to daily life, but it is a powerful movement to develop upper body strength.

Get on the ground with an upside down “V” position and your arms and feet wider than shoulder width apart. Keep your back and legs straight and your ears parallel to your upper arms. Move towards the ground, leading with your nose and stop until your nose is just an inch off the ground.
Commence to straighten out your body while keeping your body just an inch off the floor. Do this by moving your body forward along the floor. At this point you should be in a low “sprawled” push up position. This will feel a bit awkward since your arms and feet are wider than shoulder width apart.
Complete the movement by moving forward and pushing off the ground. Your body is still an inch off the floor as you end the movement in a “cobra” pose. Look up towards the sky and feel the stretch in your lower back. Return back to starting position.

Start incorporating these two exercises into your regular fitness program and see the results for yourself. You’ll realize just how potent a combination bodyweight and dumbbell exercises are. If you want more information on how to effectively combine bodyweight and dumbbell exercises into a comprehensive program, then you should check out the Gladiator Body Workout. You can find more information about this workout on my blog, ShahTraining.com

Full Hindu Squat video, visit www.power-fitness.info
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Kettlebell: The Powerful Way To Lose Weight And Get Fit

It is often a problem that when people start an exercise routine they soon become bored and this is one of the main reasons that people give when they decide that they just cannot face another session and they simply give up.

This is a great shame but if this scenario applies to you it might be a good idea to take a closer look at kettlebell workouts. Don’t laugh, this is not some kind of wind up but a form of training that is ever so effective as well as something that will bring a smile to your face.

To all intents and purpose, a kettlebell basically looks like a bowling ball with a handle on the top and many people who use this equipment have credited it as the number one reason why they are in such good shape. An added benefit of kettlebell training is that little room is required to use it to its full effect which opens this kind of exercise routine up for practically anyone, it doesn’t matter at all how much space that they have available.

The best muscle groups to work on with the kettlebell workouts are the abdominal muscles and if you keep at it you will start to see a six pack forming before you know it.

One of the most effective benefits of this type of exercise is that when you are swinging and pulling the kettlebell you will have an off balance in weight distribution which will result in one side of your body actually having to produce an off balance in weight distribution.

When you are involved in a kettlebell workout like pulling exercises you should really concentrate on navigating around your axis which will help to strengthen your stomach  and you will find that this kind of exercise really does aid the development of the abdominal muscles.

It is especially important that you don’t make the false assumption that you need to spend loads of time on your kettlebell workouts.

Just as a lack of space is not a problem, the same can be said for lack of time.

Just thirty minutes a day of kettlebell workouts will have an amazing effect on your body and this is one of the many reasons that kettlebell workouts are becoming the exercise of choice for so many people, so instead of splashing out thousands of pounds on a gym membership, simply incest in a kettlebell, it will be a decision that you are very unlikely to regret.

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Powerful Expert Advice On Fitness And Good Health

As time goes on people are becoming more and more health conscious. Despite what you might be told, you really don’t have to kill yourself at the gym to follow a healthy and fit lifestyle. Unfortunately, many people believe being fit requires too much work, but the good news is that notion isn’t as true as most people think. Keeping healthy and fit is actually easier than staying lazy and unhealthy. In this article I will provide you some powerful advice on ways you can make sure that you lead a healthy lifestyle. You might just be surprised at how easy it can be.

It’s no secret that for a truly healthy lifestyle you will need regular exercise. Yet too many people take this to mean that they need to work out extremely hard day after day. That’s not the truth. The fact is that your muscles need time to rest and recuperate after your workouts if you hope for them to grow stronger. It is the healing and building back up that makes muscles stronger. Tearing your muscles down day after day through exercise doesn’t allow them to rebuild. For many people, an exercise plan that centers around a one-day-on, one-day-off routine will be more than sufficient to support good health and fitness.

It’s also important to make sure you’re getting a proper amount of sleep. In today’s modern society, practically every day we push our bodies to the limit. This leaves little time for our bodies to get the rest we so desperately need. It is while we are sleeping that our bodies repair themselves from the stress of the day before. Your body uses the time you spend sleeping as a time to recharge its batteries. On average, most adults need to get a minimum of eight hours of sleep each twenty four hour period in order to be in optimal health.

Plus, you really should pencil in time on your schedule to relax. Sleep is not necessary or required for this step. This time should be used to de-stress. Failing to spend a little time getting rid of stress can mean big problems for your overall health.

There are lots of things that you can do to make sure that you stay as healthy as possible. This includes eating right, working out regularly and and paying close attention to your stress levels. If you want to be fitter and healthier, the techniques we just discussed will get you there before you know it. Just alleviate your stress levels, keep your relaxation to a maximum and exercise often, and soon you’ll see yourself feeling and looking better. Then it’s all a matter of making sensible choices.

For expert advice on exercise training programs you need to consult a professional with experience. Your life and your health are important, so don’t wait to get started on improving your health and fitness. Learn more right now about creating a healthier lifestyle at one of the world’s best online resources for health and fitness, ExerciseTraining.org.

The Most Powerful Telescope Will Fit Into Your Pocket

Shrinking the Telescope – “Astronomers in the last 50 years have made wondrous discoveries, expanded our understanding of the universe and opened humanity’s vision beyond the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Our knowledge of how the cosmos was born and how many of its phenomena arise has grown exponentially in just one human lifetime. In spite of these great strides there remain fundamental questions that are largely unanswered. To further our understanding of the way our present universe formed following the Big Bang requires a new type of Observatory having capabilities currently unavailable in either existing ground-based or space telescopes.”

The bigger is better concept is so embodied within our consciousness, that just the idea of smaller more efficient telescope seems to defy all the laws of science.

Yet, science always supports Miniature Size Telescopes. It is, however, the lock of understanding of the fundamental principle of focus that has deprives us over the centuries. Research in this field has provided a full understanding of the science behind optical telescope operation that has contributed to the design of the next generation of telescopes. The introduction size of miniature telescope will be the size of a viewfinder now used on present telescopes. Yet, these new generation of telescopes will posses resolving powerful greater than even the largest known telescope.

Technique in lens and mirror manufacturing has improved significantly over the centuries. With the aid of computers, lasers, and robotics technologies, optics can be made with precision accuracy. Eventually, the size of telescopes will reduce to wearable instrument as small as a pair of eyeglasses, in the not so distance future. Telescopes will soon be comprised of very small (a few centimeters in length) tubes fitted into a headgear. They will have the advantage of precise movement and shock absorbent the human head provides. Wide field of view similar to that of the naked eye, impressive focus, infinite magnification (limited only by light pollution and disturbance), and brightness allowing snap shot color photographing and live video recording. Headgear will be convenient, efficient, and versatile. The design reserves the potential to be up-graded and customized. After almost 400 years of telescope development, we finally have a revolutionary breakthrough now capable of reshaping telescopes science and create revolutionary optical devices to shrink football size telescopes to a view finder, and eventually into a pair of glasses. Welcome to the new age of telescope technology.

The Impossible Made Possible – As our technological achievements shape the future, we find ways to make the impossible possible. We constantly improve existing technology by making them smaller and more efficient. In many cases, smaller more integrated designs increase the wide category of efficiencies. We are now capable of manufacturing instruments on a microscopic scale, with the exception of the optical telescope. Optical telescope is the only instrument that actually grows in size rather then shrink. As we advance in research and development of these instruments, they grow larger in size with each new generation. It is every astronomer dream to have access to a high resolving power telescope, yet small enough to be portable.

However, it is embedded in our minds that we are unable to increase resolution with reduced size in a single design. In relation to this, engineers continue to build bigger and bigger instruments, creating monsters and giants. The reason Miniature Size Telescope is considered impossible lies not only with optical science, but also with unclear understanding of the principle of light. We still don’t understand the complex interaction involved in both viewing and capturing images, until now. It is for this uncertainty, why we still use two different theories of light. Light is viewed as a particle that accelerates from point A to point B, and light is also viewed as waves that transmit by means of wave motion. Where one theory fails to make sense, the other is applied. Miniature Size Telescope is base on ‘Unify Theory of Light’.

The Science – Our eyes are very unique: a young person’s pupil dilates between 2 and 7 millimeters, yet, the eye posses the ability to view images several thousands meters in diameter. Our wide field of view provides convincing evidence that we view converging image rays and not parallel rays. Converging image rays obeys the inverse square law of electromagnetic radiation. Converging rays describe rays that convert towards a point. Therefore, image carried by these rays reduce their cross sectional area with distance travel. Images collected by the largest telescope aperture, actually enters the few millimeters of our eyes. Small sight angle (true field) at seconds of a degree, so small the brain finds it difficult to isolate the details they contain for recognition, when they are factored into our full field of view. These small-angles of information get compressed within our large field of view, and appear to be just a small spot or become invisible.

Nevertheless, magnification provides the means by which small sight angles are converted into larger ones. A refractor telescope with an aperture of 30 millimeters and 120 millimeters focal length (focal ratio f/4), providing a magnifying power of 5x times and will have an exit pupil of 5 millimeters. This is a very bright telescope, tapping close the maximum of 7 millimeters opening of the pupil. If a second telescope was constructed, having identical aperture size of 30 millimeters, but have a focal length of 1200 millimeters (f/40). The magnifying power will be 50x times. Instead of a 5 millimeters exit pupil, such telescope will now have an exit pupil of only 0.5 millimeter. From the same formula, to obtain a 50x times magnifying power and an exit pupil of 5 millimeters, the aperture needed is 300 millimeters.

Refractor telescopes cannot obtain a 7 millimeters exit pupil without being affected by aberrations. In order to overcome this, telescope designers attempt to allocate a balance between magnification and brightness. Resolving power describes this balance. The compromise will reduce brightness, but increase magnification power and image clarity by the same proportion. The ocular plays an important role in finalizing the image of the apparent field. They are capable of influencing field of view, magnification, and exit pupil (brightness). A short focal length ocular will provide a large magnifying power, small field of view, and short exit pupil; while, a long focal length ocular will provide a small magnifying power, large field of view, and long exit pupil. From this example, one can see that magnification is inversely proportional the diameter of the exit pupil, and exit pupil is directly proportional to brightness.

From the bigger is better formula, we know that by increasing the aperture of the objective, we can increase the exit pupil and thus the brightness of the image. There are several optical design aberrations that set restriction on modem telescope design. In designing optical systems, the optical engineer must make tradeoffs in controlling aberrations to achieve the desired result. Aberrations are any errors that result in the imperfection of an image. Such errors can result from design or fabrication or both.

Achromatic lenses are developed to reduce color aberration created whenever white light is refracted, but with even the best designs, color aberration cannot be totally eliminated. Color aberration also consists of a secondary effect called the secondary spectrum. The longer the focal ratio, the fainter the secondary spectrum becomes. Color aberration limits most refractors to a focal ratio of f/15. Reflectors, which is less affected by color aberration, has focal ration of f/5 for commercial design and f/2.5 for professional designs. Within known telescope design, the different conditions necessary for image perfection is integrated, thus forcing engineers to compromise to obtain a close balance that will render the best possible image.

What if magnification, focus, and brightness could be separated? The new formula for ‘Miniature Size Telescopes’ isolates each of these factors and allow each to be independently tuned for maximum efficiency.

The Desire for Magnifying Power- “The Overwhelmingly Large Telescope (Owl) is an awesome project, which requires international effort. This huge telescope main mirror would be more than 100 meters in diameters and will have resolution 40 times better than the Hubble Space Telescope. This is a telescope with a primary mirror the size of a foot ball field.”

The need for greater magnifying power started with the Galilean design. Research and experiments to improve the telescope’s magnification shows that increase in magnification power is directly proportional to the difference in the focal length of the objective and the ocular (eyepiece), where the ocular focal length is the shorter of the two. The race to build the most powerful telescope started at an early age in telescope development. The greatest minds at the time compete to dominate the shaping of this new technology.

During this era, telescope tubes were made very long. At times, these tubes reach length that renders them unstable. In some cases the tubes were removed from the instrument’s design. Tubeless telescopes were called aerial telescopes. As telescope Engineers compete to develop more powerful telescopes, they unknowingly encountered a secondary problem that limits the length and magnification of these early ‘refractor’ telescope designs. They notice that images became darken with increase magnification. Some how, magnification was reducing the amount of light entering and or exiting the telescope lenses. The explanation for this phenomenon, was that enough light wasn’t exiting the telescope’s ocular, as enough light wasn’t been collected at the objective. An increase in the aperture size increases the exit pupil and the problem of dark image with magnification was solved.

At this stage in telescope development, only Keplerian and Galilean ‘refractor’ telescopes were invented. Lens making was in its early stages and it was difficult to manufacture quality lenses. Large aperture lenses were even a bigger challenge. Refractor telescope soon reach its’ size limitation, but now that the second section to the formula for high resolving power is known, reflector telescope of several variations was born.

To date, almost 400 years later, the same formula is still used. Modem improvements simply increase the quality of the optics now use, where modification minimized aberrations. We can now build larger telescopes with resolving power and brightness never taught possible in the time of Galileo, but the formula used in developing these modem instruments is the same as the earliest designs-bigger is better. The bigger is better formula is not without limitations. For example, color aberration limits the brightness of a refractor telescope, which requires a focal ratio of f/I 5 to filter out secondary spectrum aberration. The required focal ratio limits the light collecting capabilities of refractors. Reflectors are not affected by secondary spectrum effect. Focal ratio in the range of ff2.5 is reasonable when requiring exit pupil close to 7 millimeters. However, any attempt to increase magnification within these reflector telescopes while maintaining brightness, will require increase in the aperture and the focal length in the same proportion. It is these design features that makes the phrase ‘bigger is better’ so convincing.

Previous Limitations – Understanding of the principle of light has rewarded us with the development of modern optical technology. The present article is written to introduce a breakthrough in research and development of Small Powerful Telescopes. Most major telescope manufactures will inform you that magnification is not of significant importance; and that brightness is a more pronounce concern a buyer should have when shopping for a telescope. Magnification and brightness are equally important for viewing and capturing distant images, but the most important factor in rendering details in an image, is focus. Of all the fundamental principles involve in capturing an image, focus is less understood. The awareness of an image focal point and how to achieve a focus image can be easily calculated, but what are the electrodynamics interactions that composed a focus image is still unanswered.

All optical instruments are design around focus; therefore it will always be a top priority in the formation of clear image. Magnification and brightness are of secondary importance, they are the result after focus is achieved. It is the critical distance of focus that determine the maximum magnification and brightness at which an image will be clearly viewed. Magnification describes the action of converting smaller sight angles (true field) into larger ones (apparent field), this provide change in the angle at which the image rays are received, thus, tricking the brain into believing that the object is either closer or larger then it really is. If it wasn’t for the need for focus, a single convex lens —a magnifier-would be a telescope capable of infinite zoom magnification, through the action of simply varying the distance it is held from the eye. Unfortunately, however, there is a critical distant at which images are focus through a single lens or even a system of lenses. This is also known as the critical distance of focus.

What is focus? Webster’s Dictionary: fo-cus; is the distinctness or clarity with which an optical system renders an image.

Four Hundred Years History – The discovery of distant magnification was by accident. Early lens maker, Jan Lippershey was experimenting with two different lenses when he discovered the effect of distant magnification. He found that by holding a negative lens close to the eye while holding a positive lens in alignment with the first, away from the eye, that distant objects appeared much closer than they would with the naked eye. Since then, research to understand and explain the science behind these magical devices is still being attempted. Even with today’s technology, telescope designers are still faced with major design limitations and challenges that forge a compromise between telescope size, brightness, and image clarity. Scientists have always been puzzled by the nature of light. Sir Isaac Newton regards light as stream of tiny particles traveling in straight line. Dutch scientist Christian Huygens, on the other hand, believed that light consisted of waves in a substance called the ether, which he supposed fill space, including a vacuum. Huygens concept became accepted as the better theory of the two. Today, however, scientists believe that light consist of a stream of tiny wave pockets of energy called photons.

The Bigger is Better Formula – “With a telescope that has 10 times the collecting area of every telescope ever built. You would be able to go down several thousand times fainter than the faintest thing you see with today‘s telescopes.”

The formula that shaped known telescopes over the centuries of development is pretty basic, well known, and proven- bigger is better. This is the same as saying that larger aperture provides brighter image, while longer focal length provides greater magnification. Even so, is this formula written in stone? Let’s put the formula to the test. Can large magnification be obtained without long focal length objective? The answer is yes. Microscopes provide very large magnification with relatively short focal length objective. Is it possible to collect light without very large aperture size? Again, the answer is yes. Microscope also demonstrates this. Then why is it that microscopes provide great magnification with adequate brightness at a relatively small size, while telescopes cannot? This shows that it isn’t the law of magnification nor brightness, but it the instrument’s design limitations that insist on the concept that bigger is better. A basic Keplerian design telescope operates as a microscope when viewed through the other end of the tube. From the fact that telescopes are basically an inverted microscope, one can see the close relationship between the two.

An international standard full size student microscope provides as much as 400x magnifying power, yet such a microscope consists of a tube less then 20 centimeter in length. Sufficient light is reflected from its’ plain-o-convex mirror less than 7 centimeters in diameter. In order to obtain identical brightness and magnifying power in a telescope, focal ratio of f/2.5 is recommended for an exit pupil close to 7 millimeters. Such telescope will require an aperture of 320 centimeters (3.2 meters) and a focal length of 800 centimeters (8 meters), calculating roughly with a 20 millimeters ocular. This is an increase of almost 50x in size. This shows that brightness is not limited to large aperture, nor magnification limited to long focal length. However, the ‘bigger is better’ formula is a design limitation that surface only in distant magnification. Focusing of distant images is more challenging than focusing of close-up images. We can prove this with a single magnifying lens that is held close to the eye. Objects further then 2/3 the focal length of the lens will be out of focus.

All optical systems are design around focus. In order to vary magnification and brightness, focus has to be constant. We may compromise magnification for brightness and visa- a- verse, but we can never compromise focus. Therefore, instead of saying that magnification M is inversely proportional to brightness, it is also accurate to say that magnification M is equal to focus divided by brightness B, where focus is a constant D.

M = D/B

Magnification power (M) = focus constant (D) / Brightness (B) Within know optical telescope design, all three factors are integrated. Focus has been the primary factor for rendering a clear image, while magnification and brightness both serves as a secondary factor in the appearance of a focused image. For known optical systems, focus, brightness, and magnification are inseparable. The resolving power is used to sum up the performance of a telescope. It is established by the telescope’s ability to imprint details within an image. A picture is the imprint of individual dots that comes together to form a complete picture. Magnifying a picture involve stretching these dots. Light magnification is much different from picture magnification, and magnifies by changing the angle of the received image light.

But there is the breakthrough question, what if these three important factors could be isolated and individually tuned? Hm mm. Telescope engineering will not be the same again, and the science of astronomy will explode.

Nathaniel Douglas

Best Women’s Fitness Tips – Powerful Workout Recommendations For Women

Let’s face it, women are more pressured to look good than men in today’s society. Those flawless bodies we see in magazines, on TV, or on the Internet have become the gold standard by which beauty is defined in our society today. While some progress has been made when it comes to educating women that “fit” is not the same as “thin,” there are still many who adhere by the code that “thin is in,” causing these women to go through the dangers of crash dieting, diet pills and poor nutrition and exercise habits.

The road to genuine physical fitness need not be such a dangerous one. For you girls out there who are serious about looking good the healthy way, here are some tips:

1. Do it for yourself. This is the most crucial part. Most girls want to get that lean and sexy body because they want their husband’s or their boyfriends to desire them more. Others go on a dieting frenzy because they want to fit into that little black dress. Don’t. Love is blind and will close its eyes on those unsightly bumps. And why would you want to get all sweaty for a dress? If you must exercise or go on a diet, do it because you want to be healthy, because you want to feel good about your body, because you want to do it.

2. Go at your own pace. You can’t lose those bumps in a matter of days. You’ll only land in the hospital if you even try. Think of physical fitness as a life-long commitment. There’s no rush. Do it regularly and stay focused on your program. Comparing yourself with others will only get you down and depressed.

3. Walk for health. A 20-minute brisk walk around the park or your neighborhood can boost your metabolism. Aim for 10,000 a day- the recommended number of steps experts say can have lasting effects in terms of protecting you from cardiovascular and heart diseases as well as certain types of cancers. A pedometer is a cheap electronic device that you can clip on your waste to measure the number of steps you take each day. Studies have proven that pedometers keep you motivated to get moving. Get one.

4. Do bodyweight training. Push ups, pull ups, crunches, squats, calisthenics and other bodyweight exercises provide a full body workout without the need to enroll in a gym.

5. Join fitness boot camps for support. Fitness boot camps that are exclusive for women are springing up all over the country to provide the necessary support and camaraderie as they work out to lose weight and improve cardiovascular and muscular strength and endurance.

6. Mind your heart rate as you work out. Experts recommend working out at 75%-85% of your maximum heart rate. Below this means you’re not doing enough, above it means you’re doing more than you should.

7. Eat healthy. Any serious attempts at keeping fit cannot be achieved by exercise alone. It has to be accompanied by a sensible diet regimen that includes lots of fruit and veggies, sufficient amounts of protein from lean meat and enough water. While this can be difficult at first, you have to try to wean yourself away from processed foods.

Before you go, read our shocking Brazilian Butt Lift reviews. If you’re looking to greatly improve your body, you should definitely buy Brazil Butt Lift.

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What can a powerful Honda Fit DVD Player do?

Qualir Recommendation

This Car DVD Player fits New Honda Fit (right-hand Steering Wheel)
Built-in GPS navigation
Dual-zone, you can listen to the music or the radio while in navigation
6.2″ 800*480 Digital High Definition TFT LCD touchscreen
original PIP function, you can use 2 functions of DVD/TV/Radio/bluetooth/Navi/AUX at the same time.
original 2-ZONE function, the back display screen can connect DVD/USB/SD/TV/RADIO functions while the host display shows different contents, without any interference even in voice navigation.
Support RDS (Radio Data Services)
optional built-in DVB-T function (Digital TV used in Europe and Australia)
Support iPod iPhone
with Bluetooth
with Steering Wheel Control
Auto rear viewing function.Built-in GPS navigation, and you can listen music or radio while in navigation
6.2″ 800*480 Digital High Definition TFT LCD touchscreen
PIP function , you can use 2 of DVD/TV/Radio/bluetooth/Navi/AUX at the same time.
Support RDS (Radio Data Services)
optional built-in DVB-T function (Digital TV used in Europe and Australia)
Support iPod iPhone
with Steering Wheel Control
Auto rear viewing function.
Button light: Red/Yellow/Orange/No. Several touch sound
You can change the background picture by yourself
Virtual 6 disks CDC: V-6 disc changer memory (6 disc music can be memory in the unit while you are listening to the music)
Button light: Red/Yellow/Orange/No. Several touch sound
You can change the background picture by yourself
Virtual 6 disks CDC: V-6 disc changer memory (6 disc music can be memory in the unit while you are listening to the music)
No CAN-BUS box (if your car has CAN-BUS, the steering wheel control function of the DVD will be unavailable)


Qualir Auto Electronics Co., LTD, founded in 1998, aims to Make car owners’ drive more easily and cosily by providing auto electronics of Quality and Reliability. In May 1998, Qualir began to develop and produce Car CD, VCD Players and home CD,DVD Players. In March 2003, Qualir began to develop and produce Car Mp3 players,Car DVD Players,and successfully developed Car DVD Players with Built-in GPS function in 2004. In June 2007, Qualir decided to develop a platform for direct wholesale of Auto electronics. In September 2007, Qualir’s wholesale Dept was successfully founded and our online wholesale store www.AutoDVDGPS.com was finally completed.

Everyone expects to get good product for what he/she paid, So quality is always one of buyer’s biggest concern prior to buying. Only providing qualified Car electronics is our solemn promise. ?Just good products are not enough. As OEM factory DVD Navigation system(Headunit) is a system of complexity. Excellent technical support is also vital to buyers. Qualir has been dedicated to Car multi-media and navigation systems sales since foundation, and has rich experience in solving possible problems buyer may encounter. Each item shipped out from Qualir are carefully checked by a responsible QA team before packing. They will power up the articles and check the performance of every function. Real pictures taken from the items are the best explanation. So you can feel reliability here.

Follow the link to check the item http://www.autodvdgps.com/honda-fit-dvd-player-with-gps-navigation-system-and-digital-touchscreen-bluetooth-ipod-rds-pip-p-584.html

Boke Zhuce has been writing articles online for nearly 2 years. Not only does this author specialize in diet, fitness and children education you can also check out his latest website on some scientific thoughts and learnings about car GPS, DVD player and other car audio device.

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Video Rating: 4 / 5

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